CONTRARY TO THE OFTEN BANDIED LIES THAT THE NORTH USED GROUNDNUT MONEY TO FEED THE SOUTH, A COLONIAL ARCHIVAL REPORT SHOWS OTHERWISE
WHEN NIGERIA WAS TWO COUNTRIES
Financial report of the two different countries in 1913
PLEASE DOWNLOAD THE PDF COLONIAL REPORT BEFORE AMALGAMATION (scroll down to the end)
(For Report for 1912 see No. 782.)
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE,
4th November, 1914.
I have the honour to submit the Annual Blue Book for SouthernNigeria for the past year. I much regret that its production has been so long delayed, but the pressure consequent on amalgamation, so many radical changes in administrative policy and methods, and, lastly, the outbreak of war, has rendered it difficult during the present year to cope with the work.
2. This is the last Annual Report and Blue Book for the old Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, which under my predecessor increased wonderfully in material prosperity. The actual revenue realised in 1911 (shortly after which he left Nigeria) was £1,956,176, which was increased in the year under review to £2,668,198, while trade has increased from 10 to 12| millions. The import of trade liquor was not appreciably less during the past year than in 1910 and 1911, in spite of the increase in the duty of 6d. per gallon in March, 1912, and 9d. in March, 1913.
3, The revenue from the Forestry Department practically balanced the total expenditure, but the Chief Conservator reports an appalling •destruction of most valuable forests, which the protection anordea by existing legislation has been powerless to arrest. The matter is one which very urgently calls for effective action, since a few more years of this wholesale destruction will, as Mr. Thompson states, result not merely in the effacement of forests, which it would take many decades to replace, but in the impoverishment of agricultural lands, the denudation of hill sides, and the conversion of the rivers
into torrential streams whose bods would run dry during a great part of the year.
4. The system of education has, I fear, proved inadequate to
provide for the growing needs of the country, whether in the clerical or in the technical spheres, nor is the standard attained by the young men who offer themselves for service either to Government or to commercial firms in any way satisfactory, while complaints are heard on all sides of the lack o f discipline and self-control of the rising generation. The attendance both in Government and in assisted schools shews a satisfactory increase on 1912. *
6. The legislation of the year in view of approaching amalgamation was not of especial importance, and only two Ordinances were enacted which are worthy of’special note. The Minerals Ordinance was an attempt to introduce in the Eastern and Central Provinces a practical and useful law, and the Widows’ and Orphans’ Pension Ordinance introduced a scheme which had been under consideration for some time to provide a fund for widows and orphans of deceased British
The convictions in the Supreme Court, especially for murder,
shewed a very marked decrease, and the occasions on which it was necessary to resort to military force for the suppression of organised disturbance of the peace were comparatively few and unimportant.
7. The year was marked by great efforts and progress in sanitation, not only in the large coast ports, but throughout the country and especially on the railway, in Lagos an outbreak of yellow fever necessitated very special efforts, and the information gained by the thorough methods of investigation conclusively shewed that this terrible disease is endemic in the country.
8. The railways of north and south were amalgamated during
the year under the extremely able management of Mr. Cooper, and increased their earnings by nearly 50 per cent. A system of equality of rates between the railway and the Niger River Transport was established, and the average freight per ton mile was reduced by 24 per cent. The extension to the centre of the mine fields was nearly completed.
9. The Marine Services were worked with their usual efficiency
under the control of Lieutenant Child, and the Niger flotilla, which
was in a very bad state when taken over from Northern Nigeria, was gradually repaired.
10. The construction of the moles at the entrance of Lagos Harbour was steadily pushed forward, and at last began to shew practical results in the deepening of the bar, so that large vessels were able to enter the port for the first time.
11. The large waterworks for Lagos neared completion and a very extended programme of public works was undertaken.
12. Perhaps the two most striking events of the year were the
inauguration of a new main trunk railway from Port Harcourt to the east of the Niger, near Bonny, to meet the western line at Kaduna, 570 miles from Lagos, and the amalgamation of the Railway, Marine, and Customs Departments of the two Nigerias in anticipation of the general amalgamation which was to follow in 1914.
13. I have pleasure in submitting to you what I trust you will
agree with me in considering a satisfactory report for the year 1913. I have, &c,
• The Right Honourable
LEWIS HARCOURT, M.P., P.O.,
Secretary of State for the Colonies,
&c, &c, &c.
(Southern Nigeria and Combined Departments.)
As a preliminary step towards the complete unification ol the
Administrations of the Nigerias, the Customs, Marine, and Railway Departments of Northern Nigeria were each amalgamated on the 1st of January, 1913, with the corresponding department of Southern Nigeria; and the group thus formed was designated the Combined Departments. This change involved the removal of the revenue and expenditure of those departments together with the charge on account of Public Debt from the Estimates of both Administrations.
In the following summary the whole of the revenue and expenditure of the Combined Departments is included with the revenue and expenditure of Southern Nigeria in the column headed 1913, whilst columns 1912 and 1911 include a portion only (but by far the greater portion) of the revenue and expenditure of the Combined Departments
The following figures show the quantities and average prices realised in Europe for the chief exports of Southern Nigeria:—
Quantities of principal Southern Nigeria Exports for the Years
Palm Kernels. Palm Oil. Lint Cotton. Cocoa. Mahogany.
Tons. Tons. lb. lb. Logs.
1911 176,000 79,000 2,238,000 9,859,000 13,675
1912 185,000 77,000 4,373,CJ0 7,594,000 15,565
1913 175,000 83,000 6,361,000 8,112,000 19,152
Average Annual Value of above Products on the Liverpool Market,
Kernels. Palm Oil. American. Cocoa. Mahogany,
per ton. per ton. per lb. per cwt.
& 8. d. £ 8, d. d. £ 8. d.
1911 . . 18 6 0 31 16 0 7-03 2 8 0 No standard
1912 . . 19 15 0 29 18 0 6*46 2 10 6 prices avail-
1913 . . 23 5 0 32 15 0 7*00 2 18 6 able.
Against the shortage of 10,000 tons of palm-kernels must be placed increased exports of locally manufactured palm-kernel oil and cake, which together were 8,000 tons more in 1913 than in 1912. Owing to the short rainfall in the Western Province during 1912, the oil crop of 1913 was adversely affected in that part of the Protectorate, and the export of palm produce from Lagos fell almost 20,000 tons short of the previous year. Fortunately the output in the Central and Eastern Provinces was more than maintained, with the result that the total tonnage of palm-oil and kernels (including manufactured
The climatic conditions of the last two years have not been so favourable for the successful cultivation of cocoa as that of 1911, when the rainfall was much heavier than in 1912 and 1913.
Maize.—The export of maize since 1909 been as follows :—
The coloured population of Southern Nigeria is approximately
7,891,000, with an average density of about 98 per square mile. The most thickly populated district is that around Ikot-Ekpene, in the Ibibio country, which is estimated to contain no less than 437 inhabitants to the square mile, while the most thinly peopled region is that of Oban, inhabited by the Ekoi tribe* which is estimated to have only 4 per square mile. The country to the north of Oyo and to the southwest of Shaki is practically uninhabited.
The average number of Europeans in the country may be placed
at, roughly, 1,800, of whom about 40 per cent, are officials. The
climatic conditions of the country make long periods of residence by Europeans impossible and the white population is therefore continually changing.
There were 36 deaths and 64 cases of invaliding among European non-officials, and 7 deaths and 52 invalidings amongst the Government officials. Compared with the figures for the year 1912, there was an increase of 10 in the deaths amongst non-officials, and an increase of 22 in invalidings amongst the same class; while there was a decrease of 2 in the deaths of officials, and a decrease of 5 in their invalidings.
Hospitals.—The subjoined table gives the number of cases admitted into the various hospitals, both European and native, during the year, together with results:—
Total .. 170 4,984 4,224 549 72 309
24 COLONIAL REPORTS—ANNUAL.
Lunatic Asylums.—The Asylum at Yaba (near Lagos) had 59
inmates during the year, of whom 4 were discharged as cured and 4 died. The Calabar Asylum had 25 inmates, of whom 1 was cured and 4 died.
Leper Asylums.—The Leper Asylum at Yaba and Leper Settlements at Ibusa and Onitsha had 17, 52, and 100 inmates respectively during the year.
During 1913, which year may be regarded as a prominent one in
the sanitary activity of Southern Nigeria, much advancement was
made in developing on permanent lines sanitary improvements and organisation.
Laws passed.—Several Ordinances, Orders in Council, Notices,
etc,, having a bearing on the general health of the inhabitants of
Southern Nigeria were passed during the year.
Visits of Inspection.—Owing to the necessitv of one Sanitary Officer always being present at Headquarters, and t&e persistent appearance of yellow fever at one or other of the coast towns, with a frequently resulting quarantine, fewer places were visited in 1913 than would otherwise have been the case. Strenuous efforts were made, however, and many important centres were visited; and the most important work carried out.
Mosquito Index—The reduction in the total mosquito index from
11-10 in 1911 to 5-06 in 1912, and to 3-77 in 1913, speaks eloquently of the work done. The latter figure, small as it is compared with previous years, is much larger than it would be if some of the large native towns, over which there is at present little sanitary control, were omitted from the list.
Anti-Plague Measures.—At various places in Southern Nigeria,
especially at the ports, rat destruction was constantly carriea on.
In Lagos the number of rodents caught and killed was 24,767, being a slight decrease on the previous year.
Trypanosomiasis.—One case of this disease was reported in the
Western Province but none was found in the Central Province. In
the Eastern Province 736 cases were discovered in the Eket District and one was reported from Calabar.
Yellow Fever.—Timely warning had been taken from other ports
along the coast, where epidemics nave previously occurred, and when yellow fever appeared in Southern Nigeria the Government was not unprepared. Since the visit, in 1910, of the late Sir Hubert Boyce, who pronounced yellow fever to be endemic in these parts, Lagos town has been divided into sections and house and compound sanitary inspections have been strenuously carried out; these measures conduced enormously, no doubt, to the effective suppression of the disease.
The occurrence in Lagos covered three distinct periods, but It is
believed that they were one and the same outbreak. During the whole time there were 35 cases dealt with, 25 of which were found to have been infected locally. Of the 35 persons attacked, 12 were Europeans, 3 were people of Asia Minor, and 20 were natives of West Africa.
There were 5 deaths among the Europeans, 2 among the Asians, and none among the natives.
Sanitary Expenditure.—The expenditure for 191$ amounted to
£10,634, as against £8,384 expended in the previous yetxr, an increase of £2,250.
The year 1913 covers the first complete working period of the lines formerly known as the Lagos, Baro-Kano, and Bauchi (light) Railways, subsequent to the amalgamation of the three systems under one administration, now known as the Nigerian Railway. Results at* therefore of more than usual interest, illustrating as they do the somewhat remarkable progress made under the new conditions. The main results are as follows, including charges for haulage of Government material :—
Combined Nigerian Railways 1912. Railway 1913.
Mean mileage operated 912 924
Gross receipts 503,202 713,628
Working expenditure 354,875 385,130
Proportion of working expenditure to
gross receipts ‘ 70-52% 5S’97%
Net receipts 148,327 328,498
Total capital expenditure on mileage open
Total capital expenditure on open and
unopen lines ..
Percentage of net receipts to capital expenditure
(a) On open lines .. .%\ 5*4$
(6) On open and unopen lines .. / M 9
Orotdh of Traffic.—The increase in business on the railway is mainly due to general development of trade, and would have taken place auite apart from the amalgamation of the railways, but there is no doubt that it has been very considerably stimulated by the adoption of a uniform railway policy under one administration. Long distance traffic has been encouraged by the reduction of rates and fares, and there has been a wider distribution of trade.
Traffic has also followed a more natural course by both rail and river routes. The exceptional low water on the Niger, which has hindered river traffic, has not been nearly so accurately as it would have been, and the rail route has been able to take cargo that would formerly have been shut out especially in the SUMMARY Of THE MORE IMPORTANT OCCURRENCES
Combined Departments.—As a preliminary step towards the complete unification of the Administrations of the Nigeria*, the Customs, Marine, and Railway Departments of Northern Nigeria were each amalgamated with the corresponding and the group
thus formed was designated the Combined Departments.
Yellow Fever—Yellow fever appeased in Lagos and other Southern Nigeria ports during the year, but was successfully combated. There were Deaths.
SOUTHERN NIGERIA, 1913. 31
Eastern Railway.—The construction of a railway from Port Harcourt, a newly discovered and natural harbour at the head of the estuary of the Bonny River, to a joint on the main line from Lagos to Kano some 60 miles south of Zaria received the sanction of the Secretary of State. Construction was commenced.
Lagos Harbour Works.—The construction of moles with the object of rendering the sand bar across the entrance to Lagos Harbour navigable fully justified expectations, a J large ocean-going steamers were able to enter the port.
POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE NOTES.
ATTITUDE OF THE NATIVES.
The year under review was a peaceful one, and the only disturbances • which it was found necessary to quell by armed force took place among the more remote and unsettled tribes. The most important was a raid by the Munshis (Muslims?) on the northern frontiers of the Protectorate.
They were driven out of the lands they had seized and a permanent boundary line was made. Throughout the greater part of the Protectorate the attitude of the people was satisfactory, and they willingly co-operated in the construction of improved means of communication
In the Colony and some of the coast ports the appointment of a
Committee by the Secretary of State to enquire into the tenure on which land was held gave rise to a good deal of apprehension, and reports were spread that it was the intention of Government to confiscate the land. The agitators sent emissaries into the interior and much unrest was caused. Subscriptions were raised to send a deputation to England to give evidence before the Committee, and the disposal of the funds raised for this purpose gave rise to much recrimination.
The arrest of a prominent educated native and his conviction
on a charge of misappropriation of trust funds led to a riot in Lagos, since the man was also a leading agitator.
AMALGAMATION OF THE NIGERIAS.
The main feature of the year in the sphere of administration consisted in the preliminary steps taken towards the amalgamation of the two Nigerias, which was to be consummated on January 1st, 1914.
In preparation for this event the Railways, Customs, and Marine
Departments, which were common to both (since the railways and waterways traverse both Protectorates and the Customs were responsible for the collection of duties on all frontiers), were amalgamated during the year, and constituted ” Central” or Combined “Departments. Careful inquiries were made by the Governor into the working of the judicial system and in particular of the Native Courts and the disposal of the large revenues which accrued from fines and fees
32 COLONIAL REPORTS^—ANNUAL.
collected by the latter; into the system of administrative control
involved by the division of the Colony and Protectorate into three
” Provincial” units; into the methods under which leases of lands
had been granted; and into various other spheres of administration and departmental organisation, in many of which preliminary changes were at once introduced.
LABOUR FOR RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION.
The construction of the new Eastern Railway, which is to run
northward from Port Harcourt at the head of the Bonny estuary, was commenced during the year, and a most striking feature in this connexion was the expeditious recruitment by officers of
the political staff of the very large amount of labour required.
The organisation was started on November 6, and by the 21st
of that month 3,000 labourers were at Port Harcourt and machinery was in existence to enable that number to be brought up to a total of 8,000 within a fortnight of the demand for the labourers being made. The majority of the labourers come from the surrounding Ibo and Ibibio countries, places which in past years have placed many obstacles in the way of providing necessa^workers for public undertakings, and the achievement of assembling so large a number of men for this purpose without coercion upon the local chiefs may be considered an administrative coup.
A. G. BOYLE,
Lieut.-Governor, Southern Provinces, Nigeria
(Late Colonial Secretary, Southern Nigeria).
SOUTHERN NIGERIA, 1913. 33
HOW LONG WILL OLD MEN CONTINUE TO TELL LIES, AND HOW LONG WILL YOUNG WOMEN AND MEN CONTINUE TO LISTEN.
This shows without doubt that 1904 to 1906 Lagos DASHED the beggarly North £35,000.
That between 1900 to 1913 Southern Nigeria DASHED the beggarly North £557,750.00.
That between 1900 to 1913 the Colonial Govt of the British Empire DASHED the beggarly North £3,574,684.00.
I have remind you that the the GRANT-IN-AID from the Colonial Britain was made from the RICH South.
My question remains where did the North get the money it used to feed the rest of Nigeria.
The British forced the south and held the south down to be economically raped by the north till today.
Until and unless the people and governments of the south accept this fact and join the people of the south and demand collectively ENOUGH OF THIS FINANCIAL AND TERRITORIAL RAPE AND DEMAND A NON VIOLENT DIS-ENGAGEMENT SUPERVISED BY THE UNITED NATIONS THE SOUTH WILL REMAIN FOOLS.
The North was poor and remains poor, the South has fed the north for over 100 years. If the NIGER DELTA IS NOT FEEDING THE NORTH THEY SHOULD PROVE IT BY NOT COLLECTING ALLOCATION FROM JUNE 2017 let’s see how they will eat. The thieves of our oil wells should return them, let’s see if Gen. Danjuma will say HE DOES NOT KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH MONEY.
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